International Scientific Journal of Engineering and Management

An International Scholarly || Multidisciplinary || Open Access || Indexing in all major Database & Metadata
ISSN: 2583-6129

Impact Factor: 6.674


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  • Create Date 28 March 2023
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1 Engineering College , Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh , Agra282005




A lithium-ion or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery which uses the reversible reduction of lithium ions to store energy. It is the predominant battery type used in portable consumer electronics and electric vehicles.

       Energy density250–693 Wh/L (0.90–2.49


       Specific energy100–265 Wh/kg (0.360–0.954


       Charge/discharge efficiency80–90%

       Cycle durability400–1,200 cycles

       Self-discharge rate0.35% to 2.5% per month

depending on state of charge

       Specific powerc. 250–340 W/kg

Lithium batteries, as opposed to alkaline, are capable of giving off a strong energy surge after a long period of low discharge. This makes them ideal for fire alarms. Alkaline batteries provide good, long-term power, but they lose strength over time.

On the other side , the Lead acid battery are inexpensive compared to newer technologies, lead–acid batteries are widely used even when surge current is not important and other designs could provide higher energy densities.

Energy density80–90 Wh/L




Nominal cell voltage2.1 V

Self-discharge rate3%–20%/month

Specific energy35–40 Wh/kg

Charge temperature intervalMin. −35°C, max. 45°C

Charge/discharge efficiency50%–95%

Cycle durability<350 cycle


In order to observe the characteristic nature of Lead acid & Lithium ion battery , a review is made on the subject using Matlab Simulink and Simscape.


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