International Scientific Journal of Engineering and Management

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ISSN: 2583-6129

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STUDY OF LEAD ACID CHARGING & DISCHARGING CHARACTERISTICS

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STUDY OF LEAD ACID CHARGING & DISCHARGING CHARACTERISTICS

MEHER KUMAR

1 Engineering College , Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh , Agra282005

E-MAIL: meherkumarusic@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:-The lead-acid batteries provide the best value for power and energy per kilowatt-hour; have the longest life cycle and a large environmental advantage in that they are recycled at an extraordinarily high rate. No other chemistry can touch the infrastructure that exists for collecting, transporting and recycling lead-acid batteries.The rechargeable and secondary batteries category includes lead acid batteries. Despite the battery's low energy-to-volume and energy-to-weight ratios, it can deliver higher surge currents. This refers to the fact that lead acid cells have a high power-to-weight ratio. These are the batteries that transform chemical energy into electrical energy by using lead peroxide and sponge lead. Because of the elevated cell voltage levels and low cost, these are commonly used in substations and power systems. Lead Acid batteries are widely used in automobiles, inverters, backup power systems etc. Unlike tubular and maintenance free batteries, Lead Acid batteries require proper care and maintenance to prolong its life. The Lead Acid battery consists of a series of plates kept immersed in sulphuric acid solution. The plates have grids on which the active material is attached. The plates are divided into positive and negative plates. The positive plates hold pure lead as the active material while lead oxide is attached on the negative plates.

A completely charged battery can discharge its current when connected to a load. During the process of discharge, the sulphuric acid combines with the active materials on the positive and negative plates resulting in the formation of Lead sulphate. Water is the single most important step in maintaining a Lead Acid battery. The frequency of water depends on usage, charge method and operating temperature. During process, the hydrogen atoms from the sulphuric acid react with oxygen to form water.This results in the release of electrons from the positive plates which will be accepted by the negative plates. This leads to the formation of an electric potential across the battery. The electrolyte in the Lead Acid battery is a mixture of Sulphuric acid and water which has a specific gravity. Specific gravity is the weight of the acid-water mixture compared to equal volume of water. The specific gravity of pure ions free water is 1.


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